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Oral Mycobiome Analysis of HIV-Infected Patients: Identification of Pichia as an Antagonist of Opportunistic Fungi

Authors: Pranab K. Mukherjee,  Jyotsna Chandra, Mauricio Retuerto,  Masoumeh Sikaroodi,  Robert E. Brown,  Richard Jurevic,  Robert A. Salata,  Michael M. Lederman,  Patrick M. Gillevet, and Mahmoud A. Ghannoum

Publication Year: 2014

PMID: 24626467

Oral microbiota contribute to health and disease, and their disruption may influence the course of oral diseases like oral candidiasis. Here we identify the core oral mycobiome (COM) and core oral bacteriome (COB) in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, and demonstrate that the COM differs between these two groups. Decrease in abundance of Pichia (a resident oral fungus) in uninfected individuals coincided with increase in abundance of Candida, suggesting an antagonistic relationship. In vitro testing showed that Pichia spent medium (PSM) inhibits growth of pathogenic fungi; these findings were validated in an experimental mouse modal of oral candidiasis. The mechanism by which Pichia antagonizes Candida involves nutrient competition and secretory factor/s that inhibit the latter’s ability to adhere, germinate, and form biofilms. This study is the first to characterize the mycobiome and the bacteriome in the oral cavity of HIV infected patients, and provides the first evidence that a fungus present in the same host microenvironment antagonizes Candida and identifies potential novel antifungal approach.

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