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We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Increasing incidence of resistance to conventional antifungal therapy has demanded that novel therapies be introduced. Recent in vitro studies have shown that combinations involving azoles and allylamines may be effective in inhibiting fluconazole-resistant fungi. In this report, we describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with white patches on her buccal mucosa, tongue, and palate with a bright erythematous erosive base.

In this study, we determined the utility of a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT)-based assay for determining antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to terbinafine, ciclopirox, and voriconazole in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 method. Forty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (n = 15), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 7), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 11), and Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 13), and two quality control strains, were tested. In the XTT-based method, MICs were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of XTT and menadione.

The treatment of dermatophytoses, including onychomycosis, has come a long way over the past few decades with the introduction of oral antifungals (e.g., terbinafine and itraconazole). However, with these advancements in oral therapies come several undesirable effects, such as kidney and liver toxicity, along with drug-drug interactions. Consequently, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against dermatophytosis.

Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from Egyptian patients to the species and strain levels.

Development of standardized antifungal susceptibility testing methods has been the focus of intensive research for the last 15 years. Reference methods for yeasts (NCCLS M27-A) and molds (M38-P) are now available. The development of these methods provides researchers not only with standardized methods for testing but also with an understanding of the variables that affect interlaboratory reproducibility. With this knowledge, we have now moved into the phase of (i) demonstrating the clinical value (or lack thereof) of standardized methods, (ii) developing modifications to these reference methods that address specific problems, and (iii) developing reliable commercial test kits. Clinically relevant testing is now available for selected fungi and drugs: Candida spp. against fluconazole, itraconazole, flucytosine, and (perhaps) amphotericin B; Cryptococcus neoformans against (perhaps) fluconazole and amphotericin B; and Aspergillus spp. against (perhaps) itraconazole. Expanding the range of useful testing procedures is the current focus of research in this area.

Current therapies used to treat dermatophytoses such as onychomycosis are effective but display room for improvement in efficacy, safety, and convenience of dosing. We report here that the investigational agent VT-1161 displays potent in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes, with MIC values in the range of ≤0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml. In pharmacokinetic studies supporting testing in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis, VT-1161 plasma concentrations following single oral doses were dose proportional and persisted at or above the MIC values for at least 48 h, indicating potential in vivo efficacy with once-daily and possibly once-weekly dosing.

Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT).

The treatment of onychomycosis has improved considerably over the past several decades following the introduction of the oral antifungals terbinafine and itraconazole. However, these oral agents suffer from certain disadvantages, including drug interactions and potential liver toxicity. Thus, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against onychomycosis.